In this episode Shahriar demos the world’s fastest oscilloscope! The AgilentDSA-X 96204Q offers 160GS/s of conversion rate with a bandwidth of 62GHz on two dedicated ‘RealEdge’ channels. It can also provide 80GS/s conversion rate and 33GHz of bandwidth on four simultaneous channels. The unit demoed in this video is equipped with all available options and is valued at over 0.5 million US dollars. The block diagram of various sub-systems of the oscilloscope are presented and the principle operation of the instrument is explained. A 56Gb/s PRBS-15 signal is applied to the scope from a Centellax 2G2P5A (now Agilent N4975A) and the resulting data pattern is examined in real-time. Various scope functions are also presented as well as the capability to observer bit failures at baud-rate using this instrument.
As a second experiment, two 3.125Gb/s PRBS-7 data streams are simultaneously up-convered to 20GHz and 40GHz respectively by using a pair of MITEQ mm-wave DSB tripple balanced mixers and a pair of Avantek 20-40GHz YIG oscillators. The resulting two signals are combined by using a power-combiner and fed to the oscilloscope. The capability of the instrument to act as an ultra-broadband software-defined radio is demonstrated by recovering the two PRBS sequences simultaneously through DSP post processing. The block diagram of this setup can be downloaded from here.
I’d like to thank Mr. Neil Hoffman from Agilent for enabling this demo and Dr. Jeffery Lee for his help with the experiments.
In this episode Shahriar demos various microwave and mm-wave connectors, components and modules. The purpose of this video is to help new engineers become familiarized with microwave components and help reduce the chance of component damage and failure.
This video demonstrates microwave connectors (BNC, SMA, 3.5mm, 2.92mm (K), 2.4mm, 1.85mm (V), 1.0mm), interfacing instructions, attenuators, power splitters (both resistive and reactive), phase shifters, mm-wave cables, AC coupling caps, Bias-Ts and their principle of operation, mixers, tuning stubs, couplers, switched attenuators, microwave filters, multipliers, amplifiers, coaxial to waveguide converters, waveguide components including horn antennas, and directional couplers. The video also demonstrates Cascade GSG probes and GGB custom composite RF probes. The documents for this video can be downloaded from here.
In this episode Shahriar repairs an Agilent E4421A synthesized signal generator purchased from eBay. The unit displays the error messages “UNLOCK” and “UNLEVEL”. The cause of failure is investigated and traced. Alongside the repair efforts, the internal construction and components of the synthesizer are also presented. A short tutorial on the advantages and disadvantages of using a Darlington transistor is also presented as well as the schematic of a simple Darlington based voltage regulator. The documents for this tutorial can be found here.
In this episode Shahriar demonstrates the functionality and applications of an Agilent 11896A Polarization Controller. Various fiber optic communication methods are presented. This includes the use of complex modulation schemes (such as PAM and QAM for coherent receivers), polarization division multiplexing (PDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and spatial division multiplexing (SDM). The concept of light polarization is demonstrated by using a pair lenses from a consumer theater 3D glasses and two blue LEDs with uncorrelated lighting patterns.
In order to test the polarization controller, a solid-state laser source, SMF fiber with APC/PC connectors as well as a polarization beam splitter is presented. By using a pair of optical power sensors, the functionality of the polarization controller is verified. Finally, the teardown of the unit is presented and the method to achieve polarization control is observed.
The fiber optic communication overview document can be downloaded here. I’d also like to acknowledge my colleague and friend Dr. Timo Pfau for his expertise and consult on fiber optic communication methods.
In this episode Shahriar continues his investigation of discrete Bipolar amplifier design. The advantages and disadvantages of Class-A amplifiers are explained. The conceptual schematic of a Class-B amplifier is presented which leads to the introduction of Class-AB amplifier circuit to overcome the ‘dead-zone’ impairment of a push-pull Class-B design. To further improve the Class-AB amplifier and lower its input impedance, a final Class-A followed by Class-AB amplifier is presented The component parameters are calculated and the schematics is explained in detail. All circuits are then implemented on a breadboard and tested both in the time domain and frequency domain. All schematics can be downloaded from here.
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