Tag Archive for Analog

Tutorial on the Theory, Design and Characterization of Delta-Sigma Analog to Digital Converters


In this episode Shahriar explores the world of Delta-Sigma modulators with emphasis on a Delta-Sigma Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The basic concepts of analog to digital conversion is presented, particularly with respect to quantization noise spectral shape and power density. Next, oversampling ADCs are presented to demonstrate the possibility of increasing SQNR (ENOB) through manipulation of quantization noise spectrum.

Due to the practical limitations of high oversampling ratios, delta-sigma modulations is explored. The principle operation behind delta-sigma ADCs is presented with detailed explanation on noise shaping, filtering and decimation. The signal and noise transfer functions for a 1st order and 2nd order delta-sigma ADC are derived. Finally, as a practical example, a 2nd order delta-sigma ADC based on a 1-bit quantizer is presented. The ADC uses two Miller integrator op-amps, one comparator and a D-Type flip-flop. The complete measurement of this delta-sigma ADC is presented. The impact of over sampling ration, op-amp linearity and input signal bandwidth is presented. The slides for this video can be downloaded here.

Tektronix MDO4104B-6 Mixed Domain Oscilloscope (MDO4000B) Review and Experiments


In this episode Shahriar reviews and demos the second revision of the industry’s first Mixed Domain Oscilloscope from Tektronix. The MDO4000B series offers improved signal integrity and performance. The reviewed model is a MDO4104B-6 which offers 16-Channel Logic Analyzer, 4-Channel Oscilloscope with 1GHz of analog bandwidth as well a 6GHz Spectrum Analyzer with greater than 1GHz of instantaneous capture bandwidth with 65dB of dynamic range.

After an overview of the instrument’s interfaces and built quality, the block diagram and principle operation of the instrument is explained. The time-correlated digital, analog and RF capturing capability is described and its advantages for debugging complex mixed-domain systems is explored. Instrument probes, accessories and various modules are also presented.

The instrument is used to measure an ultra-pure single-tone signal at various frequencies for THD, SFDR and dynamic range measurements. For the main demonstration, a complete I/Q modulator system prototype is presented. The prototype includes a Maxim MAX2721 modulator, external PA, antenna diversity switch SW-277, digital control circuitry, power-grid DC-DC converters, external step attenuators, an Agilent E4342B synthesizer for LO generation and an Agilent N6020A arbitrary waveform generator for baseband signal generation. The Tektronix MDO is used to monitor RF, baseband, digital and power-supply analog waveforms. The system includes an array of problems including intermittent spurious tones, power supply dependent spectral noise, antenna switching glitches and 256-QAM constellation imperfections. The MDO is used to analyze, measure and solve all system problems. Tektronix SignalVu is used to analyze the system performance. As a final experiment, the MDO is used to demodulate a 1GHz bandwidth 32-QAM 500MS/s signal centered at a 3GHz carrier. The experiment documents can be downloaded here.


Tutorial on the Theory, Design and Characterization of a Single Transistor Bipolar Amplifier

Bipolar Amp

In this episode Shahriar presents a tutorial on the design and characterization of a single-stage low-noise bipolar amplifier suitable for audio applications. Given a set of specifications, a common-emitter topology is investigated. The circuit employs a beta-insensitive biasing scheme which is simultaneously optimized for  maximum output swing. The small-signal gain of the circuit is calculated and the bandwidth is set for audio frequencies. A non-inverting operational amplifier is used as a second stage to achieve the desired overall gain. The circuit is assembled on a breadboard where the gain and bandwidth are measured and compared with design specifications. As the final experiment, the circuit is used to amplify signals from a microphone. All documents can be downloaded from here.


Cryogenic Experiments on Passive and Active Electronic Components


In this episode, Shahriar investigates the theory and experimental results of the impact of extreme low temperatures on passive and active components. Liquid Nitrogen in used in a transparent glass Dewar where different components can be fully submerged in the liquid.  Various types of resistors are compared for their temperature stability. An electromagnet which uses Copper coils is used to generate a magnetic field at a constant power consumption at both extreme temperatures. The impact of liquid nitrogen on the junction voltage of an NPN device is measured as well as the frequency shift of a CMOS ring oscillator. Finally, the wavelength shift of an LED submerged in liquid nitrogen is studied. There is a puzzle at the end of this video, please share your thoughts in the comments section. All documents can be downloaded from here.


Tutorial on Waveform Shaping and Signal Constellation in an Optical Link

3D Constellation

In this episode Shahriar uses a few components to beyond what there were originally intended for in order to setup an optical link! By using a BlinkM RGB LED, a Color Sensor, and two PIC USB Boards from Sparkfun Electronics, a stand-alone optical link is established. Various theories of operation, including multilevel data transmission, signal constellation and detailed circuit diagrams are also presented. The final result is an 8-PAM, 3-Wavelength optical link with a colorful three-dimensional constellation graph. The code for the transmitter IC, receiver IC and Matlab functions are available to download from here.


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