In this episode Shahriar discusses methods for generating a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) signal entirely in the analog domain by employing operational-amplifiers (Op-Amps). A total of four op-amps from a single power supply are used in unity-gain negative feedback, astable positive feedback, integrator and open-loop comparator configurations. The theory of operation as well as measurement are also presented. This episode also includes a quiz. Please post your answers in the comment section.
As a final experiment, an ignition coil is used to generate in excess of 20k volts! The combination of the PWM circuit and the ignition coil provides a stand-alone fully analog high voltage power supply.